How to do CPR

Published on 16 March, 2011 | first aid

CPR FOR ADULTS

firstaid

The following gives the actions that you should take to deal with a CPR in an adult:

1.    If you are alone with the person, SHOUT for help rather leaving them on their own and start the resuscitation immediately.
2.    Place the heel of your hand in the centre of their chest, and place the other hand on top and interlock the fingers.

Compressions
3.    Keep your arms straight and your fingers off the chest; press down approximately 4-5cms – then release the pressure, keeping your hands in place.
4.    Repeat the compressions 30 times, at a rate of 100 per minute.

Rescue Breaths
1.    Ensure that their airway is open and pinch nose firmly closed.
2.    Take a deep breath and seal your lips around the person’s mouth.
3.    Blow into the mouth until the chest rises.
4.    Remove your mouth and allow the chest to fall and repeat once more.
5.    Continue resuscitation, 30 compressions to 2 Rescue Breaths.
6.    If there is blood in and around the mouth or it is difficult to breathe into their mouth, then you can place your mouth around their nose.
7.    Continue with CPR until either the emergency services arrive or if you become too exhausted that you cannot continue (you could continue with compressions only until you catch your breath).  It is always a good idea to check whether there is anyone else that can take over – this can be done every 2 minutes with minimum disruptions.
8.    Once they start to breathe normally then you can leave them – if you have been unable to get someone to call for the emergency services, then this would be the appropriate time to do so.

CPR FOR CHILDREN (1 YEAR TO PUBERTY)
These are similar actions as with an adult – first thing is to get someone to call for an ambulance: If alone then carry out CPR for 2 minutes before calling for an ambulance, then:

Rescue Breaths
1.    Ensure the airway is open.
2.    Seal your lips around the child’s mouth while pinching the nose.
3.    Blow gently into the lungs, looking along the chest as you breathe.
4.    Take shallow breaths and do not empty your lungs completely.
5.    As the chest rises, stop blowing and allow it to fall.
6.    Repeat 4 or more times then check for circulation.
7.    Give 30 chest compressions

Compressions
1.    Place 1 or 2 hands in the centre of the chest (depending upon the size of the child).
2.    Use the heel of that hand with arms straight and press down to a third of the depth of the chest.
3.    Press 30 times, at a rate of 100 compressions per minute.
4.    After 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths.
5.    Continue resuscitation (30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths) without stopping until the emergency services arrive.
6.    If you are alone, carry out rescue breaths and chest compressions for 2 minutes before leaving the child to call the emergency services.

CPR FOR BABIES (BIRTH TO 1 YEAR)

CPR for babies is similar to the procedures used on young children; however you are able to place your mouth over the baby’s nose and mouth.

1.    Your breath MUST be gentler as you fill your cheeks with air rather than breathing from your lungs. As the chest rises, stop blowing and allow it to fall.
2.    Repeat this 5 times. Then give 30 chest compressions by placing the baby on a firm surface.
3.    Use 2 fingers in the centre of the chest and press down sharply to about a third of the depth of the chest. Gently press 30 times, at a rate of 100 compressions per minute.
4.    After 30 compressions, give 2 Rescue Breaths.
5.    Continue resuscitation (30 compressions to 2 rescue breath) without stopping until help arrives.
6.    If you are alone, carry out rescue breaths and chest compressions for 2 minutes before taking the infant with you to call an ambulance.
7.    If you are familiar with adult CPR and have no knowledge of infant CPR, use the adult sequence using 2 fingers for compression.

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